Climate Change

Keep it in the ground

15/11/17 - RADIO: Costing the Earth: Bonn Climate Talks: Where Next?  (30 mins) Tom Heap is in Bonn for the United Nations annual climate change discussions. It is the first year with Donald Trump in power as president of the United States of America and Tom will be exploring what impact his climate stance will have on the conference talks and any future agreements. Tom's guests are Lou Leonard, senior vice president of climate and energy at WWF US. He leads their climate program in the US and he is in Bonn to represent the 'We Are Still In' movement, referring to President Trump's desire to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement. Rachel Kyte is Chief Executive Officer of Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL), and Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Sustainable Energy for All. Oliver Maurice is Director of The International National Trusts Organisation: the organisation that oversees all of the national trust organisations around the world, and Mark Pershin. Mark fronts an organisation called 'Less Meat, Less Heat' and he tells Tom about something called the 'Climatarian' diet. Tom will be taking stock of some of the topics disucssed in this series of Costing The Earth and asks how our attempts to combat climate change are proceeding and will proceed in the future. Will public responsibility and engagement with the problems that are now being faced galvanise more of the world's population into action?

08/06/17 - Beneath the waves, coral reefs are dying on a massive scale. These scientists and filmmakers are fighting to stop it. Chasing Coral is now streaming on Netflix. Directed by Jeff Orlowski who previously directed Chasing Ice, which showed time-lapse sequences of melting glaciers.

28/02/17 - What Shell knew about climate change in 1991 In 1991, Shell produced a public documentary on global warming called Climate of Concern. It warned that trends in global temperatures raised serious risks of famines, floods and climate refugees. But in the quarter century since, Shell has continued to invest heavily in fossil fuels.

21/01/17 - Westerners urged to reduce carbon footprint Top UK climate scientist says global carbon emissions could be cut by a third within a year if well-off westerners changed their lifestyle.Kevin Anderson, professor of energy and climate change at Manchester University, in the UK, says a major reduction in personal air travel is a key starting point. More than half of the carbon dioxide pollution that causes a large part of global warming comes from the 10% best-off people on the planet, he argues.

24/12/16 - Wealthy threaten China's emissions cutbacks China’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are being undermined by increased Western-style consumption habits among the urban rich.Around 20 million people every year move from rural to urban areas in China in search of better jobs and more comfortable lifestyles. New research shows that this mass movement of people – part of what is the largest internal migration in human history – is not only leading to growing income inequality between the countryside and the cities, but is also threatening China’s goal of radically cutting back on its emissions of greenhouse gases.

29/11/16 - Arctic tipping points put planet at risk A warming climate is exposing the Arctic to the possibility of radical changes that could affect the rest of the planet, scientists say. If the world fails to slow the pace of climate change very soon by cutting emissions of the greenhouse gases that are heating the planet, Arctic tipping points threaten to overwhelm the region.

12/11/16 - Trump’s climate plans look stormyThe US president-elect has called global warming a hoax and climate science bullshit. What do Donald Trump’s climate plans mean for international agreements?

05/11/16 - Arctic Ocean could be ice-free before mid-centuryTwo scientists have worked out what it would take to melt all the ice in the Arctic Ocean. If their sums are right, then by the time human beings have burned enough fossil fuels to add 1,000 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, the Arctic Ocean will be free of ice in September – the annual minimum – and the world’s shipping will have a new, safe, fast route across the Arctic Circle. Quite when this moment will happen depends entirely on the rate that humans add greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

09/10/16 - Aviation industry plans to curb emissions International aviation is among the fastest growing sources of greenhouse gases. Up until this week, airlines have resisted any kind of restriction on emissions, particularly in the US, where there is a very high volume of domestic air travel. Since the ICAO’s general assemblies take place only every three years, the deal would have had to wait until 2019 if it had not been accepted last Thursday.However, to make sure it went through, several issues were fudged and put aside for specialist working groups to come up with solutions. This is the same technique that has been used many times in the main climate talks to keep the negotiations on track and avoid a breakdown.

01/10/16 - Greenland rises as ice sheet melts faster New research shows that Greenland has been losing billions more tonnes of ice than thought – and gaining height as bedrock rises under less weight.

05/06/16 - Europe’s floods come as no surprise Scientists have warned that the extra moisture in warmer air will mean more intense rainfall, but floods still leave governments unprepared. At least 18 people have lost their lives in central Europe as severe floods engulf the continent from France to Ukraine. In Paris the River Seine reached 6.1 metres (20 feet) above normal, and tens of thousands of people have fled their homes.

04/06/16 - Paris floods: Seine level starts dropping after 30-year high The river level rose to 6.1m (20ft) above its normal height overnight. Floods also forced parts of the metro system and major landmarks to close, while the Louvre and Orsay museums were shut while staff moved art to safety. Despite the water level falling on Saturday morning, Paris remains under the second-highest alert, which warns of a "significant impact". Forecasters had warned the river could reach as high as 6.5m above it normal level.

03/06/16 - Europe’s renewables spending hits 10-year low The reputation of Europe as a renewable energy leader has taken a serious knock as its investment dropped by 21 per cent last year while global figures reached record levels. Much of Europe prides itself on its determination to act resolutely on climate change, but in at least one key respect it has failed to back its rhetoric with action. Its investment in renewable energy showed a significant drop in 2015, falling to its lowest level in almost a decade.

14/05/16 - Shock impacts hit Greenland’s ice New research indicates that melting of the Northern Hemisphere’s biggest ice sheet is being accelerated by the seismic impact of waves crashing against Greenland’s coastline.

24/04/16 - Something Understood: Changing the Climate (30 mins) Mark Tully asks if climate change offers an opportunity for us to improve our lives - not just by consuming less and respecting nature more, but by finding a deeper relationship with nature and each other. Mark discusses the prevailing economic wisdom of ever increasing growth, and ever increasing demand to feed that growth, with leading Indian economist Rajiv Kumar who believes that economics can and must change to reduce our impact on the climate. But Mark also acknowledges the benefits of human ingenuity and curiosity which have led to so many technological advances, as well as enhancements in our lives. He considers how a move towards a new way of life might be evolutionary, rather than revolutionary, while reminding us with the help of a Native American Cree proverb that "only when the last tree has been cut down, the last river has been poisoned and the last fish has been caught will man finally realise we can't eat money."

22/04/16 - Why the Paris climate change goals may already be slipping beyond reach World leaders convened at the UN this week in support of the historic deal, but epic challenges lie ahead if the promises of Paris are going to be put into action. World leaders have failed to come to grips with the epic challenge of phasing out fossil fuels and running the entire global economy almost entirely on clean energy by the middle of this century, experts said this week.

22/03/16 - The Life Scientific: Carolyn Roberts (28 mins) Barely a month goes by without news of another catastrophic flood somewhere in the world, like the Boxing Day tsunami in 2004 or the flooding of New Orleans with Hurricane Katrina a year later, and the role of climate change is often mooted. Here in the UK this winter, flood victims were once again caught in a cycle of despair and anger as they tried to make sense of why their homes were flooded and what could be done to prevent it happening again. Jim Al-Khalili talks to environmental scientist, Professor Carolyn Roberts, who is pre-occupied by problems like this. She applies water science, in particular, to work out why such events occur and the role we humans play in them.

08/01/16 - COP21: Paris deal far too weak to prevent devastating climate change, academics warn The Paris Agreement to tackle global warming has actually dealt a major setback to the fight against climate change, leading academics will warn. The deal may have been trumpeted by world leaders but is far too weak to do help prevent devastating harm to the Earth. “What people wanted to hear was that an agreement had been reached on climate change that would save the world while leaving lifestyles and aspirations unchanged. The solution it proposes is not to agree on an urgent mechanism to ensure immediate cuts in emissions, but to kick the can down the road.”

12/12/15 - James Hansen, father of climate change awareness, calls Paris talks 'a fraud' “It’s a fraud really, a fake,” he says, rubbing his head. “It’s just bullshit for them to say: ‘We’ll have a 2C warming target and then try to do a little better every five years.’ It’s just worthless words. There is no action, just promises. As long as fossil fuels appear to be the cheapest fuels out there, they will be continued to be burned.”

11/12/15 - This unscripted film expresses four childrens' thoughts and feelings about climate change, and the actions they want politicians to take. It was shot at the time of the COP21 Paris negotiations on climate change and delivered by hand to David Cameron's constituency office on 11th December 2015.

22/11/15 - ‘Our melting, shifting, liquid world’: celebrities read poems on climate change Actors including James Franco, Ruth Wilson, Gabriel Byrne, Maxine Peake, Jeremy Irons, Kelly Macdonald and Michael Sheen read a series of 21 poems on the theme of climate change, curated by UK poet laureate Carol Ann Duffy. Includes two bonus poems from Byrne and Franco.

13/11/15 - Extreme weather, human error and why the world floods Since 2007, Gideon Mendel has photographed lives turned upside down by floods. What do his latest images reveal?

24/06/15 - Dutch government ordered to cut carbon emissions in landmark ruling Dutch court orders state to reduce emissions by 25% within five years to protect its citizens from climate change in world’s first climate liability suit.

13/06/15 - Explosive intervention by Pope Francis set to transform climate change debate The most anticipated papal letter for decades will be published in five languages on Thursday. It will call for an end to the ‘tyrannical’ exploitation of nature by mankind. Could it lead to a step-change in the battle against global warming?

14/05/15 - Turning the tide: Coastal communities and conservation Tropical coastal ecosystems such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass beds, are some of the most biodiverse in the world and have essential economic and cultural functions. Yet, threatened by overexploitation and climate change, a loss in marine biodiversity would have profound implications on ecosystem function (including the carbon cycle) and human well-being. It would impact the ability of communities to be resilient in response to a changing climate.

07/04/15 - Talking Climate Change with the centre-right: Election 2015 What if there were ways to talk about climate change with centre-right voters in ways that resonate with their communal values? Building on extensive research and two previous reports, COIN have produced an election guide and video that they hope will help people engage in meaningful conversations about climate change running up to the election and beyond.

31/03/15 - RADIO: The Life Scientific: Jane Francis (28 mins) Just twenty years ago, the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) would not allow women to camp in Antarctica. In 2013, it appointed Jane Francis as its Director. Jane tells Jim Al-Khalili how an intimate understanding of petrified wood and fossilised leaves took her from Dorset's Jurassic coast to this icy land mass. Camping on Antarctic ice is not for everyone but Jane is addicted, even if she does crave celery and occasionally wish that she could wash her hair. Fossils buried under the ice contain vital clues about ancient climates and can be used to check current computer models of climate change. The earth can withstand a great range of temperatures: Antarctica was once covered in lush forest. But the question is: can humans adapt? As the ice caps melt, sea levels will continue to rise. And, says Jane, the time to start planning for that is now.

31/03/15 - RADIO: Costing the Earth: Climate Change: Inconvenient Facts? (30 mins) With arctic sea ice shrinking and Antarctic sea ice growing, Tom Heap asks what is happening to the climate. Despite the consensus of scientists around the world, there are still some anomalies in the computer models of the future climate. Tom Heap is joined by a panel of experts to tackle some of the difficult questions that lead to uncertainties in our understanding of the changing climate.

15/03/15 - Cyclone Pam - Vanuatu death toll rises. 'Lack of urgency' on climate change, says World Bank V-P Rachel Kyte, World Bank vice president and special envoy for climate change, said there appeared to be a disconnect between policy and the increasingly-frequent weather-related disasters the world is suffering. In the past three or four years we’ve seen category fives coming with a regularity we’ve never seen before. And that has some relationship with climate change. It is indisputable that part of the Pacific Ocean is much warmer today than in previous years, so these storms are intensifying. We may have helped communities become resilient to the kinds of storms we experienced in the past, but resilience to a storm with wind speed of up to 300km per hour – that’s a whole new intensity.

10/03/15 - Keep fossil fuels in the ground to stop climate change There is nothing random about the pattern of silence that surrounds our lives. Silences occur where powerful interests are at risk of exposure. In the fourth piece in the Guardian’s major series on climate change, George Monbiot argues that once coal, oil and gas are produced, they will be used. And yet, after 23 years of UN negotiations there have been almost no steps taken to stop the production – rather than the use of – fossil fuels.

07/03/15 - Climate Change . . . It's Time to Act 20,000 people march to Westminster. We demand that our elected representatives show courageous leadership at this pivotal time. We want a bold climate deal at Paris in line with the science, which prioritises the phasing out of fossil fuels with no future delay. We want legislation for the common good which bans fracking outright; we want investment in renewables, which are available now. This means a dedicated workforce to creating the infrastructure - with one million climate jobs. We want a fair commitment from the UK on climate mitigation and finance, and action which will encourage others to demonstrate similar ambitions.

06/03/15 - If enough of us decide that climate change is a crisis worthy of Marshall Plan levels of response, then it will become one Naomi Klein

01/01/15 - VIDEO: The Wisdom to Survive (3m 10s) Climate change is taking place. Will we have the wisdom to survive? The film features thought leaders and activists in the realms of science, economics and spirituality. The focus: how we can live creatively and even joyfully in the face of this catastrophe. Because they are doing the work that needs to be done, they inspire the viewer to want to join the "team."

17/11/14 - Will geoengineering make people give up cutting their carbon footprint? Wealthier people are more susceptible to the trap of saying they won’t take action on emissions when they think engineering the planet’s climate is a possibility.

13/11/14 - Lightning strikes will increase due to climate change For every 1C of global warming lightning strikes will increase by about 12%, new research shows, but scientists don’t yet know where increases will occur. The findings provide further evidence that climate change is having far greater effects on weather patterns than initially anticipated.

12/11/14 - Sinking Jakarta Starts Building Giant Wall as Sea Rises If you worry that rising sea levels may one day flood your city, spare a thought for Michelle Darmawan. Her house in Jakarta is inundated several times a year -- and it’s 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) from the coast. Whenever there’s a particularly high tide or heavy rain, the Ciliwung River and its network of canals overflow, swamping thousands of homes in Indonesia’s capital. In January, a muddy deluge washed over Darmawan’s raised porch, contaminating her fresh-water tank and cutting off electricity for three days.

07/11/14 - '2071' at Royal Court Theatre, London. Urgent call for the greatest collective action in history. The facts are sombre in Chris Rapley’s compelling 75-minute talk on climate change, but his belief in human ingenuity knows no bounds. Chris Rapley CBE is Professor of Climate Science at University College London and previously Director of the Science Museum, London, and Director of the British Antarctic Survey.

04/11/14 - COIN's launch of George Marshall's new book, Don’t Even Think About It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change. Introduced by George Monbiot before an audience of 200 at Holywell Music Room, Oxford who joined a thought-provoking climate conversation examining why, despite the overwhelming scientific evidence, we are so adept at side-lining climate change. FULL VIDEO(1hr 30 mins) OR this 4 minute trailer for the book:

02/11/14 - IPCC: rapid carbon emission cuts vital to stop severe impact of climate change Most important assessment of global warming yet warns carbon emissions must be cut sharply and soon, but UN’s IPCC says solutions are available and affordable.

21/10/14 - Research reveals current climate engagement strategies are failing to reach young people . COIN releases ‘Young Voices’, a major new report looking at young people’s attitudes to climate change. Supported by the Grantham Institute at the London School of Economics, it is the first study to ask young people themselves how to engage their peers more effectively, and to propose and test new climate change narratives specifically designed to engage 18-25 year olds.

08/10/14 - COIN's launch of Naomi Klein's new book This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate at a packed Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford.

23/09/14 - 'What's Possible': The U.N. Climate Summit Opening Film Presented to world leaders at the United Nations Climate Summit in New York, this short inspirational film shows that climate change is solvable. We have the technology to harness nature sustainably for a clean, prosperous energy future, but only if we act now. Narrated by Morgan Freeman, it calls on the people of the world to insist leaders get on the path of a livable climate and future for humankind.

21/09/14 - Hundreds of thousands of people across 150 countries took part in protests dubbed the People's Climate March - flagged as the biggest ever call-to-action to demand that world leaders take immediate action on climate change at the UN Climate Summit in New York City the following Tuesday.

19/09/14 - RADIO: My Family and Other Ibex (30mins). Chemist and broadcaster Andrea Sella returns to the mountain landscape of his childhood to see how this icy world has changed over the past century. In his father's study hangs a photograph that Andrea has always been told was taken by Vittorio Sella, a distant relation regarded by many as the greatest of all mountain photographers. It depicts the Cogne valley in north-western Italy, a place where Andrea, and his father before him, spent summers as a children hiking and climbing the surrounding peaks. Described as, "unspoiled" in guidebooks, on the surface the valley looks just as it did when Andrea was a child. But look closer and things have changed. After a visit to the archive of Vittorio's photographs where he finds a time capsule of the mountains of the late 19th century, he sets out to see the mountains today.

06/03/14 - RADIO: Inside Science. The recent extreme rainfall has left many asking, is this weather linked to climate change? A new project 'weather@home' 2014, aims to use a large citizen science experiment to run two sets of weather simulations. One will represent conditions and "possible weather" in the winter 2014, and the second will represent the weather in a "world that might have been" if human behaviour had not changed the composition of the atmosphere through greenhouse gas emissions. By comparing the numbers of extreme rainfall events in the two ensembles, 'Weather@Home' will work out if the risk of a wet winter has increased, decreased or been unaffected by human influence on climate. [Results: so the risk of a very wet winter has increased by around 25%.]

04/03/14 - Living on the edge of disaster -climate's human cost. Each year, millions of people are driven from their homes by natural disasters such as floods, storms, and droughts. Most live in the world's poorest and most conflict-ridden states, and lack the resources to recover after a crisis. As climate continues to change across the globe, natural disasters will become more frequent and more severe. This short film from Refugees International examines the toll that our changing climate is having on some of the world's most vulnerable people, and the efforts being made to address this growing threat.

20/01/14 - Moving Stories – Latin America. Migration, displacement and climate in Latin America. The Latin American region is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. Many of its countries are located in the hurricane belt; others depend on the thaw of the snow and ice deposits in the Andes to supply water to their urban and agricultural sectors; and several are at high risk from major disasters such as floods.

13/01/14 - Climate Change: Challenges and Solutions. A FREE online course from the University of Exeter. Their very first MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) begins on 13th January 2014 on the Open University's FutureLearn platform, and lasts for eight weeks. The free course is open to absolutely everybody – whether you are a student considering coming to university or are simply interested in learning more about climate change. The course is delivered entirely online covering a different topic each week. VIDEO(1m 38s)

01/12/13 - VIDEO: Are Hurricanes Getting Worse? (2m 50s) Explore how climate change is affecting hurricane intensity and frequency, and what other factors will affect the future of tropical storms.

02/04/13 - Poll: It doesn’t matter what’s causing it - UK adults believe the government must act on climate change Are scientists, communicators and policymakers too preoccupied about whether people 'believe' in human-caused climate change or not? Polling by Carbon Brief shows that while people may not be sure whether humans are warming the planet, the majority still wants action now to abate climate change.

29/03/13 - Watch the extensive ice fractures in the Beaufort Sea The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite captured this view of extensive sea-ice fracturing off the northern coast of Alaska. The event began in late-January and spread west toward Banks Island throughout February and March 2013.

18/02/13 - RADIO: The Drowning City (5 min clip) In October last year, Hurricane Sandy ripped into New York, taking lives, sparking a huge fire, flooding subways and tunnel connections and leaving thousands without power for days. Isabel Hilton reports on the aftermath of the hurricane in New York. As sea levels are predicted to keep rising, she looks at what New York and other threatened coastal cities might do to prepare for future storms. Hurricane Sandy was a wake up call to New York and to many other coastal cities that have to face the reality of rising sea levels and increased chances of hurricanes and storm surges. Much of lower Manhattan was up to ten feet underwater and the storm sent a 14-foot surge into New York's harbour that continued for miles up the Hudson River. As the city continues to mop up, Isabel looks at the ways in which it might prepare for future storms and flooding, from building great walls and sea defences to sealing the subways and tunnels. She also considers the lessons that New York has to offer other threatened coastal cities - along the Eastern Seaboard of America and right around the world.

14/02/13 - RADIO: In Our Time - Ice Ages (43 mins) Jane Francis, Richard Corfield and Carrie Lear join Melvyn Bragg to discuss ice ages, periods when a reduction in the surface temperature of the Earth has resulted in ice sheets at the Poles. Although the term 'ice age' is commonly associated with prehistoric eras when much of northern Europe was covered in ice, we are in fact currently in an ice age which began up to 40 million years ago. Geological evidence indicates that there have been several in the Earth's history, although their precise cause is not known. Ice ages have had profound effects on the geography and biology of our planet.

21/01/13 - VIDEO: Watch 62 Years of Global Warming in 13 Seconds NASA have produced this amazing 13-second animation that depicts how temperatures around the globe have warmed since 1950. You’ll note an acceleration of the temperature trend in the late 1970s as greenhouse gas emissions from energy production increased worldwide and clean air laws reduced emissions of pollutants that had a cooling effect on the climate, and thus were masking some of the global warming signal.

30/12/12 - Climate Change you can't ignore it Anne Karpf is not a climate-change sceptic, she's a climate-change ignorer. She knows it's happening – the floods, Arctic ice melt, Hurricane Sandy – but after a flash of fear, helplessness takes over and she 'tunes out'.

16/12/12 - Review of the new film Chasing Ice (5 min clip) James Balog, a celebrated photographer working for National Geographic, who became fascinated with what glaciers can teach us about our changing planet. In 2007 he set up the Extreme Ice Survey (EIS), a well-funded project to monitor glaciers in Greenland, Iceland, Montana, the Alps, Canada and Bolivia, and the results – photographed using state-of-the-art time-lapse cameras – are sensational in their beauty, terror and the irrefutable evidence they provide of the rapidity with which age-old ice packs are melting away. It's like watching our world disappear.

11/12/12 - TV: Channel 4 - Is Our Weather Getting Worse? (47 mins) Blending dramatic archive footage, expert insight and cutting-edge graphics, the film investigates the most severe weather events to have struck Britain in recent memory and puts them into the wider context of climate change. The world is warming which causes the atmosphere to hold more moisture, and this means that the weather systems have more energy and become more violent. The next 50 years which our children and grandchildren will live through will not be the sort of world that we have grown up with.

05/11/12 - Climate change: the elephant in our living room. Why does it take an enormous tragedy like Hurricane Sandy to drive home the reality of climate change? People would have to suffer before realizing that exploiting the earth brings terrible consequences. We would have to become hungry, wet, cold; our homes under water or on fire; and at last count, 110 of us dead in New York and New Jersey before connecting these miseries to our unsustainable "mysticism of progress" and our fixated preoccupation with fossil fuels.

Cartoon Climate Change Elephant in Therapy21/10/12 - TV: BBC Horizon - Global Weirding Horizon follows the scientists who are trying to understand what's been happening to our weather and investigates if these extremes are a taste of what is to come.
Comment: Global Weirding and Optimism Bias

18/03/12 - VIDEO: How to talk to a climate change denier/dissenter (20 mins) George Marshall tells us to have that important conversation with Uncle Bob, and gives us a way of doing it that may actually change his mind.... Communications expert George Marshall offers six strategies for talking to people who don't accept that climate change is happening. Drawing on his workshops in climate communications and the latest social research he proposes a respectful approach that responds to their interests and values. He says that you should keep away from an argument about the science and concentrate on the personal journey that led you to accept the problem. Try it and you'll find it works.

26/02/12 - A Greenhouse effect has cooled the climate of Almería The 26,000 hectares of greenhouses growing salad crops on the Costa del Sol reflect so much sunlight back into the atmosphere that they are actually cooling the province.

20/02/11 - RADIO: In Denial - Climate on the Couch (30 mins) Something strange is happening to the climate - the climate of opinion. On the one hand, scientists are forecasting terrible changes to the planet, and to us. On the other, most of us don't seem that bothered, even though the government keeps telling us we ought to be. Even climate scientists and environmental campaigners find it hard to stop themselves taking holidays in long haul destinations.

2010 - Beyond the Brink is a 40 minute film by Ross Harrison, a young West Oxfordshire filmmaker, his take on the climate change debate includes interviews with Sir David Attenborough, Mark Lynas, David Shukman and Professor Dieter Helm.

23/04/09 - Kivalina: The Canary in the Mine. At the tip of a barrier island 80 miles above the Arctic Circle is a town on the island of Kivalina, home to 400 native Alaskan Inupiat residents. They, along with their school, post office, health clinic, grocery store, laundry, two churches and a bingo hall are sinking into the Chukchi Sea. Their town is melting. Over the past 50 years, their average temperature has risen more than three degrees Fahrenheit and in the autumn of 2007, the whole island was evacuated for a few weeks following a devastating storm.